Characterization of a New Nepovirus Infecting Grapevine.
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In 2012, dormant canes of a proprietary wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) accession were included in the collection of the University of California-Davis Foundation Plant Services. No virus-like symptoms were elicited when bud chips from propagated own-rooted canes of the accession were graft-inoculated onto a panel of biological indicators. However, chlorotic ringspot symptoms were observed on sap-inoculated Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste & A. Rein and C. quinoa Willd. plants, indicating the presence of a mechanically transmissible virus. Transmission electron microscopy of virus preparations from symptomatic C. quinoa revealed spherical, nonenveloped virions about 27 nm in diameter. Nepovirus-like haplotypes of sequence contigs were detected in both the source grape accession and symptomatic C. quinoa plants via high-throughput sequencing. A novel bipartite nepovirus-like genome was assembled from these contigs, and the termini of each RNA segment were verified by rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends assays. The RNA1 (7,186-nt) of the virus encodes a large polyprotein 1 of 231.1 kDa, and the RNA2 (4,460-nt) encodes a large polyprotein 2 of 148.9 kDa. Each of the polyadenylated RNA segments is flanked by 5'- (RNA1 = 156-nt; RNA2 = 170-nt) and 3'- (RNA1 = 834-nt; RNA2 = 261-nt) untranslated region sequences with >90% identities. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the conserved Pro-Pol amino acid sequences revealed the clustering of the new virus within the genus Nepovirus of the family Secoviridae. Considering its biological and molecular characteristics, and based on current taxonomic criteria, we propose that the novel virus, named grapevine nepovirus A, be assigned to the genus Nepovirus.
author list (cited authors)
Al Rwahnih, M., Alabi, O. J., Hwang, M. S., Tian, T., Mollov, D., & Golino, D.
complete list of authors
Al Rwahnih, Maher||Alabi, Olufemi J||Hwang, Min Sook||Tian, Tongyan||Mollov, Dimitre||Golino, Deborah