The missing memristor found. Academic Article uri icon


  • Anyone who ever took an electronics laboratory class will be familiar with the fundamental passive circuit elements: the resistor, the capacitor and the inductor. However, in 1971 Leon Chua reasoned from symmetry arguments that there should be a fourth fundamental element, which he called a memristor (short for memory resistor). Although he showed that such an element has many interesting and valuable circuit properties, until now no one has presented either a useful physical model or an example of a memristor. Here we show, using a simple analytical example, that memristance arises naturally in nanoscale systems in which solid-state electronic and ionic transport are coupled under an external bias voltage. These results serve as the foundation for understanding a wide range of hysteretic current-voltage behaviour observed in many nanoscale electronic devices that involve the motion of charged atomic or molecular species, in particular certain titanium dioxide cross-point switches.

published proceedings

  • Nature

altmetric score

  • 117.514

author list (cited authors)

  • Strukov, D. B., Snider, G. S., Stewart, D. R., & Williams, R. S.

citation count

  • 7841

complete list of authors

  • Strukov, Dmitri B||Snider, Gregory S||Stewart, Duncan R||Williams, R Stanley

publication date

  • May 2008

published in