Development of Recurrent Neural Network Considering Temporal‐Spatial Input Dynamics for Freeway Travel Time Modeling
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The artificial neural network (ANN) is one advance approach to freeway travel time prediction. Various studies using different inputs have come to no consensus on the effects of input selections. In addition, very little discussion has been made on the temporal-spatial aspect of the ANN travel time prediction process. In this study, we employ an ANN ensemble technique to analyze the effects of various input settings on the ANN prediction performances. Volume, occupancy, and speed are used as inputs to predict travel times. The predictions are then compared against the travel times collected from the toll collection system in Houston. The results show speed or occupancy measured at the segment of interest may be used as sole input to produce acceptable predictions, but all three variables together tend to yield the best prediction results. The inclusion of inputs from both upstream and downstream segments is statistically better than using only the inputs from current segment. It also appears that the magnitude of prevailing segment travel time can be used as a guideline to set up temporal input delays for better prediction accuracies. The evaluation of spatiotemporal input interactions reveals that past information on downstream and current segments is useful in improving prediction accuracy whereas past inputs from the upstream location do not provide as much constructive information. Finally, a variant of the state-space model (SSNN), namely time-delayed state-space neural network (TDSSNN), is proposed and compared against other popular ANN models. The comparison shows that the TDSSNN outperforms other networks and remains very comparable with the SSNN. Future research is needed to analyze TDSSNN's ability in corridor prediction settings. 2013 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.
Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering
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Zeng, Xiaosi||Zhang, Yunlong