A Review of the Anomalies in Directed Energy Deposition (DED) Processes and Potential Solutions Academic Article uri icon


  • Directed Energy Deposition (DED) processes offer one of the most versatile current techniques to additively manufacture and repair metallic components that have generatively designed complex geometries, and with compositional control. When compared to powder bed fusion (PBF), its applicability and adoption has been limited because several issues innate to the process are yet to be suitably understood and resolved. This work catalogs and delineates these issues and anomalies in the DED process along with their causes and solutions, based on a state-of-the-art literature review. This work also serves to enumerate and associate the underlying causes to the detrimental effects which manifest as undesirable part/process outcomes. These DED-specific anomalies are categorized under groups related to the part, process, material, productivity, safety, repair, and functional gradients. Altogether, this primer acts as a guide to best prepare for and mitigate the problems that are encountered in DED, and also to lay the groundwork to inspire novel solutions to further advance DED into mainstream manufacturing.

author list (cited authors)

  • Liu, M., Kumar, A., Bukkapatnam, S., & Kuttolamadom, M.

complete list of authors

  • Liu, Michael||Kumar, Abhishek||Bukkapatnam, Satish||Kuttolamadom, Mathew

publication date

  • September 2020