Ovarian follicle diameter at timed insemination and estrous response influence likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy after estrous synchronization with progesterone or progestin-based protocols in suckled Bos indicus cows. Academic Article uri icon


  • The objectives of the present study were to evaluate factors associated with estrous synchronization responses and pregnancy per insemination (P/AI) in Bos indicus beef cows submitted to progesterone-based fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. A total of 2388 cows (1869 Nellore and 519 crossbred NellorexAngus) from 10 commercial farms were evaluated to determine the relationships among breed, body condition score (BCS) on the first day of the FTAI protocol, the occurrence of estrus between progesterone device removal and FTAI, and diameter of largest ovarian follicle (LF) at FTAI on estrous synchronization responses and P/AI. Cows (n=412 primiparous; 1976 multiparous) received an intravaginal device containing progesterone or an ear implant containing norgestomet (a progestin), and an injection of estradiol at the beginning of the estrous synchronization protocol. Body condition was scored using a 1-5 scale on the first day of the FTAI protocol and at 30-60 days postpartum. Females received 300IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and PGF(2alpha) on the day the progesterone device/implant was removed and were inseminated 48-60h later. At insemination, cows (n=2388) were submitted to an ultrasonographic exam to determine the diameter of the LF. Follicles were classified into four categories based on mean and standard deviation (SD) of the LF (LF1=two SD below the mean; LF2=mean minus one SD; LF3=mean plus one SD; LF4=two SD above the mean). Ovulation rate was determined in a subset of cows (n=813) by three consecutive ultrasonographic exams: (1) at time of progesterone device/implant removal, (2) at time of FTAI and (3) 48h after FTAI. Ovulation was defined as the disappearance of a large follicle (>or=8.0mm) that was previously recorded. Estrus was determined in a subset of the cows (n=445) by the activation of a detection of estrous patch placed on the tail head on the day of progesterone device/implant removal. Pregnancy was diagnosed 30 days after FTAI. Pregnancy was influenced (P=0.001) by follicle diameter [LF1=27.5% (81/295), LF2=46.6% (328/705), LF3=57.9% (647/1118), LF4=63.3% (171/270)] and the occurrence of estrus [estrus=67.7% (174/257) and no estrus=36.2% (68/188)]. Follicle diameter at FTAI influenced ovulation rate [LF1=42.5% (34/80), LF2=73.9% (161/218), LF3=95.8% (407/425), LF4=97.8% (88/90)], the occurrence of estrus [LF1=54.8% (51/93), LF2=33.6% (43/128), LF3=68.9% (126/183), LF4=90.2% (37/41)] and P/AI among cows that had ovulations [LF1=32.4% (11/34), LF2=50.3% (81/161), LF3=60.0% (244/407), LF4=68.2% (60/88)]. Improving estrous responses between progesterone device withdrawal and FTAI and increasing the diameter of the LF at FTAI may be important aspects to achieve improved estrous synchronization responses and P/AI following progesterone/progestin and estradiol based FTAI protocols in suckled Bos indicus cows.

published proceedings

  • Anim Reprod Sci

author list (cited authors)

  • S Filho, M. F., Crespilho, A. M., Santos, J., Perry, G. A., & Baruselli, P. S.

citation count

  • 135

complete list of authors

  • Sá Filho, MF||Crespilho, AM||Santos, JEP||Perry, GA||Baruselli, PS

publication date

  • January 2010