Specialized oral nutritional supplement (ONS) improves handgrip strength in hospitalized, malnourished older patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease: A randomized clinical trial.
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral Nutritional Supplements (ONS) are used to treat malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes in malnourished patients. Poor handgrip strength (HGS) is associated with an increased risk of mortality, disability and other adverse health consequences. This analysis examined the effect of a specialized ONS on HGS and its relationship to nutritional status in hospitalized, older adults with malnutrition who were participants in the NOURISH trial. METHODS: We enrolled older (65years), malnourished (Subjective Global Assessment [SGA] class B/C) adults hospitalized for cardiovascular and pulmonary events: congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (NOURISH study). During hospitalization and until 90 days after discharge, participants received standard-of-care plus a high protein and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate containing ONS (S-ONS; n=328) or a placebo supplement (n=324), aimed at 2 servings/day. HGS was evaluated by dynamometer at baseline, hospital discharge, day (d) 30, d60, and d90 post-discharge. RESULTS: Post hoc, repeated measures analysis of data at discharge, d30, d60, and d90 showed significantly higher HGS in the S-ONS vs. the placebo group in the evaluable group (Least Squares MeansStandard Error: (23.250.25 vs. 22.630.25, p=0.043). At d90, there was a significant positive association between HGS and nutritional status (SGA) improvements in the entire cohort: 49% of participants with increased HGS from discharge had improved nutritional status versus 31% with unchanged or decreased HGS (p=0.003). HGS and the scores on the Katz index of independence in activities of daily living (ADL) were positively associated at all visits including all ITT subjects (Pearson's r range: 0.24 to 0.34, all p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: S-ONS provided during hospitalization and up to 90 days post-discharge improves HGS in malnourished older adults following cardiovascular and pulmonary events and may contribute to improvement in patients' overall recovery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01626742.