The effect of combined carprofen and omeprazole administration on gastrointestinal permeability and inflammation in dogs
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BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (eg, omeprazole) commonly are administered concurrently with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; eg, carprofen) as prophylaxis to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) injury. However, evidence to support this practice is weak, and it might exacerbate dysbiosis and inflammation. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of carprofen alone or combined with omeprazole in dogs. We hypothesized that coadministration of omeprazole and carprofen would significantly increase GI permeability and dysbiosis index (DI) compared to no treatment or carprofen alone. ANIMALS: Six healthy adult colony beagle dogs. METHODS: Gastrointestinal permeability and inflammation were assessed by serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, plasma iohexol concentration, fecal DI, and fecal calprotectin concentration in a prospective, 3-period design. In the first 7-day period, dogs received no intervention (baseline). During the 2nd period, dogs received 4 mg/kg of carprofen q24h PO for 7 days. In the 3rd period, dogs received 4 mg/kg of carprofen q24h and 1 mg/kg of omeprazole q12h PO for 7 days. Gastrointestinal permeability testing was performed at the end of each period. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed model analysis of variance with Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests (P < .05). RESULTS: Serum LPS and plasma iohexol concentrations did not differ between treatments. Fecal calprotectin concentrations differed between treatments (P = .03). The DI varied over time based on the treatment received (P = .03). Coadministration of omeprazole and carprofen significantly increased fecal calprotectin concentration and DI compared to baseline and carprofen alone. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Omeprazole prophylaxis induces fecal dysbiosis and increases intestinal inflammatory markers when coadministered with carprofen to otherwise healthy dogs with no other risk factors for GI bleeding.
author list (cited authors)
Jones, S. M., Gaier, A., Enomoto, H., Ishii, P., Pilla, R., Price, J., ... Tolbert, M. K.