Revision of the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale for Measuring Awareness and Equanimity in Goenka’s Vipassana Meditation with Chinese Buddhists Academic Article uri icon


  • Goenka's 10-day Vipassana course is a widespread mindfulness course rooted in traditional Buddhism. Awareness and equanimity are two abilities cultivated in this course that are not featured in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies and thereby not adequately measured by current mindfulness scales. The present article analyzed the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al. in Assessment 15(2):204-223, 2008) and revised it into a short version to avoid confusion when measuring awareness and equanimity. Empirical data obtained using Chinese university students and Chinese Buddhists showed that the psychometric properties of the original version of the PHLMS had low factor loading on some items and that the short version had improved psychometric properties, especially for Buddhists. The short PHLMS also exhibited reasonable relationships with emotional outcomes and meditation practices among Buddhists. Implications for the future application of the PHLMS among Buddhists were also discussed.

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Zeng, X., Li, M., Zhang, B. o., & Liu, X.

citation count

  • 9

publication date

  • May 2014