Assessing the biochemical oxygen demand using neural networks and ensemble tree approaches in South Korea. Academic Article uri icon


  • The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), one of widely utilized variables for water quality assessment, is metric for the ecological division in rivers. Since the traditional approach to predict BOD is time-consuming and inaccurate due to inconstancies in microbial multiplicity, alternative methods have been recommended for more accurate prediction of BOD. This study investigated the capability of a novel deep learning-based model, Deep Echo State Network (Deep ESN), for predicting BOD, based on various water quality variables, at Gongreung and Gyeongan stations, South Korea. The model was compared with the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) and two ensemble tree models comprising the Gradient Boosting Regression Tree (GBRT) and Random Forests (RF). Diverse water quality variables (i.e., BOD, potential of Hydrogen (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature (WT), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P)) were utilized for developing the Deep ESN, ELM, GBRT, and RF with five input combinations (i.e., Categories 1-5). These models were evaluated by root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and correlation coefficient (R). Overall evaluations suggested that the Deep ESN5 model provided the most reliable predictions of BOD among all the models at both stations.

published proceedings

  • J Environ Manage

author list (cited authors)

  • Kim, S., Alizamir, M., Zounemat-Kermani, M., Kisi, O., & Singh, V. P.

citation count

  • 26

complete list of authors

  • Kim, Sungwon||Alizamir, Meysam||Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad||Kisi, Ozgur||Singh, Vijay P

publication date

  • September 2020