Neurological presentations of intravascular lymphoma (IVL): meta-analysis of 654 patients
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BACKGROUND: Patients with intravascular lymphoma (IVL) frequently have neurological signs and symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is therefore crucial for their survival. However, the spectrum of neurological presentations and their respective frequencies have not been adequately characterized. Our aim is to document the spectrum of clinical symptoms and their respective frequencies and to create a clinical framework for the prompt diagnosis of IVL. METHODS: A comprehensive meta-analysis of 654 cases of IVL published between 1957 and 2012 was performed to provide better insight into the neurological presentations of this disease. Neurologic complications were mainly divided into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) presentations. RESULTS: There were no differences in occurrences of CNS IVL based on gender or geographic locations (Asian Vs non-Asian). However, most patients with CNS IVL were younger than 70 years of age (p < 0.05). Our limited data do not support the treatment efficacy of methotrexate. CNS symptoms were seen in 42% of all cases. The most common CNS complications identified were cognitive impairment/dementia (60.9%), paralysis (22.2%), and seizures (13.4%). PNS complications were seen in 9.5% of cases. Out of these, muscle weakness (59.7%), neurogenic bladder (37.1%), and paresthesia (16.1%) were the most common presentations. CONCLUSIONS: CNS complications are more common among IVL patients. Out of these, dementia and seizures outnumber stroke-like presentations.
author list (cited authors)
Fonkem, E., Dayawansa, S., Stroberg, E., Lok, E., Bricker, P. C., Kirmani, B., Wong, E. T., & Huang, J. H.