Differences between predicted outer membrane proteins of genotype 1 and 2Mannheimia haemolytica.
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BACKGROUND: Mannheimia haemolytica strains isolated from North American cattle have been classified into two genotypes (1 and 2). Although members of both genotypes have been isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tracts of cattle with or without bovine respiratory disease (BRD), genotype 2 strains are much more frequently isolated from diseased lungs than genotype 1 strains. The mechanisms behind the increased association of genotype 2M. haemolytica with BRD are not fully understood. To address that, and to search for interventions against genotype 2M. haemolytica, complete, closed chromosome assemblies for 35 genotype 1 and 34 genotype 2 strains were generated and compared. Searches were conducted for the pan genome, core genes shared between the genotypes, and for genes specific to either genotype. Additionally, genes encoding outer membrane proteins (OMPs) specific to genotype 2M. haemolytica were identified, and the diversity of their protein isoforms was characterized with predominantly unassembled, short-read genomic sequences for up to 1075 additional strains. RESULTS: The pan genome of the 69 sequenced M. haemolytica strains consisted of 3111 genes, of which 1880 comprised a shared core between the genotypes. A core of 112 and 179 genes or gene variants were specific to genotype 1 and 2, respectively. Seven genes encoding predicted OMPs; a peptidase S6, a ligand-gated channel, an autotransporter outer membrane beta-barrel domain-containing protein (AOMB-BD-CP), a porin, and three different trimeric autotransporter adhesins were specific to genotype 2 as their genotype 1 homologs were either pseudogenes, or not detected. The AOMB-BD-CP gene, however, appeared to be truncated across all examined genotype 2 strains and to likely encode dysfunctional protein. Homologous gene sequences from additional M. haemolytica strains confirmed the specificity of the remaining six genotype 2 OMP genes and revealed they encoded low isoform diversity at the population level. CONCLUSION: Genotype 2M. haemolytica possess genes encoding conserved OMPs not found intact in more commensally prone genotype 1 strains. Some of the genotype 2 specific genes identified in this study are likely to have important biological roles in the pathogenicity of genotype 2M. haemolytica, which is the primary bacterial cause of BRD.
author list (cited authors)
Clawson, M. L., Schuller, G., Dickey, A. M., Bono, J. L., Murray, R. W., Sweeney, M. T., ... Smith, T.
complete list of authors
Clawson, Michael L||Schuller, Gennie||Dickey, Aaron M||Bono, James L||Murray, Robert W||Sweeney, Michael T||Apley, Michael D||DeDonder, Keith D||Capik, Sarah F||Larson, Robert L||Lubbers, Brian V||White, Brad J||Blom, Jochen||Chitko-McKown, Carol G||Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M||Smith, Timothy PL