Stability of vitamins during extrusion.
Additional Document Info
Vitamins (fat and water soluble) are vital food ingredients for healthy living, required by our bodies for normal metabolism. These are present in most natural food in small quantities, but when we process food through thermal processing methods (especially extrusion) a reasonable amount of the present vitamins are lost. During extrusion, factors like barrel temperature, screw rpm, moisture of ingredients, die diameter, and throughput affect the retention of vitamins in food and feed. The vitamins most sensitive to the extrusion process are vitamin A and vitamin E from fat-soluble vitamins, and vitamin C, B(1), and folic acid from water-soluble vitamins. The other vitamins of the B group, such as B(2), B(6), B(12), niacin, Ca-pantothenate, and biotin, are stable. Vitamin E itself or in its complex form is quite unstable during processing and even in storage of extruded food. Ascorbic acid directly added or coated with fat and then added to feed during extrusion is also very unstable. Vitamins A, C, D, and E are also sensitive to oxidation, so these vitamins have minimum retention during storage of extruded food.