Constraints to cruising across cultures and time. Academic Article uri icon


  • Cruise tourism is permeating the global arena. With companies developing new ships/itineraries for the U.S. and China markets, understanding constraints to cruising for different cultures carries significant value for cruise tourism development. This study adopted longitudinal and cross-cultural approaches to validate constraint measures. Data were collected in the U.S. in 2008 and 2017 and in China in 2017, using the same set of constraint measures across different times and cultures. This multi-dimensional triangulation approach was deemed important for testing the robustness of a measurement scale and is believed to be the first of its type. Findings validate the cruising constraint instrument across time and cultures and provide theoretical and practical implications.

published proceedings

  • Int J Hosp Manag

author list (cited authors)

  • Hung, K., Lee, J., Wang, S., & Petrick, J. F.

citation count

  • 8

complete list of authors

  • Hung, Kam||Lee, Jin-Soo||Wang, Sha||Petrick, James F

publication date

  • August 2020