The Development of Si and SiGe Technologies for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits Chapter uri icon


  • Historically, microwave technology was developed by military and space agencies from around the world to satisfy their unique radar, communication, and science applications. Throughout this development phase, the sole goal was to improve the performance of the microwave circuits and components comprising the systems. For example, power amplifiers with output powers of several watts over broad bandwidths, low noise amplifiers with noise figures as low as 3 dB at 94 GHz, stable oscillators with low noise characteristics and high output power, and electronically steerable antennas were required. In addition, the reliability of the systems had to be increased because of the high monetary and human cost if a failure occurred.

author list (cited authors)

  • Ponchak, G. E., Alterovitz, S. A., Katehi, L., & Bhattacharya, P. K.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Ponchak, George E||Alterovitz, Samuel A||Katehi, Linda PB||Bhattacharya, Pallab K

editor list (cited editors)

  • Das, N. K., & Bertoni, H. L.

Book Title

  • Directions for the Next Generation of MMIC Devices and Systems

publication date

  • January 1997