Lipstick and logarithms: Gender, institutional context, and representative bureaucracy Academic Article uri icon


  • According to the theory of representative bureaucracy, passive representation among public employees will lead to active representation in bureaucratic outputs. Existing research demonstrates that the link between passive and active representation exists for race but not for sex. Past research on this topic has not, however, taken into account the contextual environment that affects whether sex will translate into gender and lead to active representation in the bureaucracy. In this paper, we create a framework that specifies the conditions that affect whether passive representation results in active representation for sex and then test this framework using the case of education. We find that passive representation of women in education leads to active representation and that the institutional context affects the extent to which this link between passive and active representation occurs.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 10.58

author list (cited authors)

  • Keiser, L. R., Wilkins, V. M., Meier, K. J., & Holland, C. A.

citation count

  • 399

complete list of authors

  • Keiser, LR||Wilkins, VM||Meier, KJ||Holland, CA

publication date

  • September 2002