Oxidation of energy substrates in tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)
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This study tested the hypothesis that amino acids are oxidized at higher rates than glucose and palmitate for ATP production in tissues of largemouth bass (LMB, a carnivorous fish). Slices (10 to 50 mg) of liver, proximal intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle isolated from LMB were incubated at 26 °C for 2 h in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4, with 5 mM D-glucose) containing either D-[U-14C]glucose, 2 mM L-alanine plus L-[U-14C]alanine, 2 mM L-aspartate plus L-[U-14C]aspartate, 2 mM L-glutamate plus L-[U-14C]glutamate, 2 mM L-glutamine plus L-[U-14C]glutamine, 2 mM L-leucine plus L-[U-14C]leucine, or 2 mM palmitate plus [U-14C]palmitate. In parallel experiments, tissues were incubated with a [U-14C]-labeled tracer and a mixture of unlabeled substrates [alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, leucine, and palmitate (2 mM each) plus 5 mM glucose]. 14CO2 was collected to calculate the rates of substrate oxidation. In separate experiments, O2 consumption by each tissue was measured in the presence of individual or a mixture of substrates. The activities of key metabolic enzymes were also measured. Results indicated that the liver and skeletal muscle had a limited ability to oxidize glucose and palmitate to CO2 for ATP production in the presence of individual or a mixture of substrates due to low activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, hexokinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In the presence of individual substrates, each amino acid was actively oxidized by all the tissues. In the presence of a mixture of substrates, glutamine and glutamate were the major metabolic fuels in the proximal intestine and kidney, as glutamine for the liver and aspartate for skeletal muscle. All the tissues had high activities of glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and transaminases. At the same extracellular concentration of amino acids (2 mM) in a mixture of energy substrates, glutamine was the major metabolic fuel for the liver of the LMB, glutamine and glutamate for the proximal intestine and kidneys, and aspartate for the skeletal muscle. Glutamine plus glutamate plus aspartate generated 60-70% of ATP in LMB tissues.
author list (cited authors)
Li, X., Shixuan Zheng, .., Jia, S., Song, F., Zhou, C., & Wu, G.