Evaluation of dietary trace mineral supplementation in young horses challenged with intra-articular lipopolysaccharide
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Sixteen weanling Quarter Horses (255 ± 22 kg) were utilized in a 56-d trial to evaluate the effects of trace mineral (TM) source on intra-articular inflammation following a single acute inflammatory insult. Horses were stratified by age, sex, and BW and then randomly assigned to dietary treatment: concentrate formulated with Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co as inorganic sources (CON; n = 8) or complexed TMs (CTM; n = 8). Added TM were formulated at iso-levels across treatments and intakes met or exceeded NRC requirements. Horses were offered 1.75% BW (as-fed) of treatment concentrate and 0.75% BW (as-fed) coastal Bermudagrass hay. Growth measurements were collected on days 0, 28, and 56, and plasma was collected biweekly for determination of Mn, Cu, Zn, and Co concentrations. On day 42, carpal joints were randomly assigned to receive injections of 0.5 ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or sterile lactated Ringer's solution (LRS; contralateral control). Synovial fluid was collected at preinjection hours (PIH) 0, and 6, 12, 24, 168, and 336 h post-injection and analyzed for TM concentration, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII), collagenase cleavage neopeptide (C2C), and aggrecan chondroitin sulfate 846 epitope (CS846). Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Results showed a TM source × LPS × h effect for synovial fluid Co, Cu, and Se (P < 0.05); concentrations of TM peaked at hour 6 and decreased to preinjection values by hour 168 in both CON and CTM-LPS knees. A delayed peak was observed at hour 12 for CTM-LRS. Peak synovial fluid Cu and Se concentrations were higher in LPS knees, and Co was highest in CTM-LPS. A TM source × h interaction was observed for Zn (P < 0.05); concentrations peaked at hour 6 in CON vs. hour 12 for CTM. An LPS × h interaction was observed for Mn (P < 0.01); synovial concentration peaked at hour 6 in LPS knees compared with hour 24 in LRS. Synovial PGE2, C2C, CPII, and CS846 concentrations were greater with LPS (P ≤ 0.01), and C2C was greater (P < 0.01) in CTM compared with CON. Concentrations of CPII and PGE2 were unaffected by diet. A TM source × h × LPS interaction was observed for CS846 (P = 0.02). Concentrations of CS846 in CTM peaked at 12 h, whereas CON peaked at a lower concentration at 24 h (P < 0.05). Data indicate sufficient intake of a complexed TM source may support cartilage metabolism through increased aggrecan synthesis and type II collagen breakdown following an intra-articular LPS challenge in growing horses.
author list (cited authors)
Millican, A. A., Leatherwood, J. L., Coverdale, J. A., Arnold, C. E., Bradbery, A. N., Larson, C. K., ... Wickersham, T. A.