The authors introduce a social judgment framework they term deviance-regulation theory. This theory proposes that people self-regulate more on the basis of the perceived social consequences of deviating from behavioral norms than on the basis of the perceived social consequences of conforming to behavioral norms. The implications of this model were explored in the context of persuasive health communication. Four studies demonstrated that health communication had its greatest effects on behavioral intention and behavioral willingness when it associated images with deviant behavioral alternatives. Thus, when participants believed their peers made healthy decisions, they were most influenced by negatively framed communication that emphasized the undesirable attributes of people who made unhealthy decisions. In contrast, when they believed their peers made unhealthy decisions, they were most influenced by positively framed communication that emphasized the desirable attributes of people who made healthy decisions.