Selection for resistance to imidacloprid in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Academic Article uri icon


  • The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), continues to be a primary pest of livestock facilities worldwide. This pest also has shown a propensity for pesticide resistance development when under high selection pressures. In this study the house fly strain FDm was created by a 20% contribution from each of five colonies collected from dairies in Florida with known imidacloprid resistance. The FDm strain was used to evaluate the level ofimidacloprid resistance after five selections near the LC70 value of each selected generation. Overall, the mean selection mortality was 72.7, with males being considerably more susceptible than females. The unselected (F0) FDm strain showed considerable susceptibility to imidacloprid after its creation, compared with the five parental strains. Between 9500 and 14,000 virgin house flies were used in each selection. After the fifth and final selection, a 331-fold increase in imidacloprid resistance at the LC70 was observed over the parental FDm strain. In parallel studies, the FDm strain showed increasing tolerance of the commercial imidacloprid product QuickBayt. These results suggest that livestock producers should use caution when choosing pesticides and consider rotating fly baits, as is encouraged with other pesticide treatment regimes on farms.

published proceedings

  • J Econ Entomol

author list (cited authors)

  • Kaufman, P. E., Nunez, S. C., Geden, C. J., & Scharf, M. E.

citation count

  • 36

complete list of authors

  • Kaufman, Phillip E||Nunez, Sonia C||Geden, Christopher J||Scharf, Michael E

publication date

  • October 2010