Nicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticide resistance in houseflies (Diptera: Muscidae) collected from Florida dairies. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: The housefly, Musca domestica L., continues to be a major pest of confined livestock operations. Houseflies have developed resistance to most chemical classes, and new chemistries for use in animal agriculture are increasingly slow to emerge. Five adult housefly strains from four Florida dairy farms were evaluated for resistance to four insecticides (beta-cyfluthrin, permethrin, imidacloprid and nithiazine). RESULTS: Significant levels of tolerance were found in most field strains to all insecticides, and in some cases substantial resistance was apparent (as deduced from comparison with prior published results). At the LC(90) level, greater than 20-fold resistance was found in two of the fly strains for permethrin and one fly strain for imidacloprid. Beta-cyfluthrin LC(90) resistance ratios exceeded tenfold resistance in three fly strains. The relatively underutilized insecticide nithiazine had the lowest resistance ratios; however, fourfold LC(90) resistance was observed in one southern Florida fly strain. Farm insecticide use and its impact on resistance selection in Florida housefly populations are discussed. CONCLUSION: Housefly resistance to pyrethroids is widespread in Florida. Imidacloprid resistance is emerging, and tolerance was observed to both imidacloprid and nithiazine. If these insecticides are to retain efficacy, producer use must be restrained.

published proceedings

  • Pest Manag Sci

author list (cited authors)

  • Kaufman, P. E., Nunez, S. C., Mann, R. S., Geden, C. J., & Scharf, M. E.

citation count

  • 92

complete list of authors

  • Kaufman, Phillip E||Nunez, Sonia C||Mann, Rajinder S||Geden, Christopher J||Scharf, Michael E

publication date

  • March 2010