Peroxynitrite-induced neuronal apoptosis is mediated by intracellular zinc release and 12-lipoxygenase activation.
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Peroxynitrite toxicity is a major cause of neuronal injury in stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite are still unclear. In this study, we observed that TPEN [N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine], a zinc chelator, protected against neurotoxicity induced by exogenous as well as endogenous (coadministration of NMDA and a nitric oxide donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate) peroxynitrite. Two different approaches to detecting intracellular zinc release demonstrated the liberation of zinc from intracellular stores by peroxynitrite. In addition, we found that peroxynitrite toxicity was blocked by inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and caspase-3 and was associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Inhibition of 12-LOX blocked the activation of p38 MAPK and caspase-3. Zinc itself induced the activation of 12-LOX, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of p38 MAPK and caspase-3. These data suggest a cell death pathway triggered by peroxynitrite in which intracellular zinc release leads to activation of 12-LOX, ROS accumulation, p38 activation, and caspase-3 activation. Therefore, therapies aimed at maintaining intracellular zinc homeostasis or blocking activation of 12-LOX may provide a novel avenue for the treatment of inflammation, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases in which the formation of peroxynitrite is thought to be one of the important causes of cell death.
author list (cited authors)
Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Li, J., Jimenez, D. A., Levitan, E. S., Aizenman, E., & Rosenberg, P. A.
complete list of authors
Zhang, Yumin||Wang, Hong||Li, Jianrong||Jimenez, Daniel A||Levitan, Edwin S||Aizenman, Elias||Rosenberg, Paul A