The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Syndecans in murine embryonic teeth.
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The hierarchical interactions between the dental epithelium and dental mesenchyme represent a common paradigm for organogenesis. During tooth development, various morphogens interact with extracellular components in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surfaces to transmit regulatory signaling into cells. We recently found pivotal roles of FAM20B-catalyzed proteoglycans in the control of murine tooth number at embryonic stages. However, the expression pattern of proteoglycans in embryonic teeth has not been well understood. We extracted total RNA from E14.5 murine tooth germs for semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 29 proteoglycans, and identified 23 of them in the embryonic teeth. As a major subfamily of FAM20B-catalyzed proteoglycans, Syndecans are important candidates being potentially involved in the tooth development of mice. We examined the expression pattern of Syndecans in embryonic teeth using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) approaches. Syndecan-1 is mainly present in the dental mesenchyme at early embryonic stages. Subsequently, its expression expands to both dental epithelium and dental mesenchyme. Syndecan-2 is strongly expressed in the dental mesenchyme at early embryonic stages, then shifts to the stratum intermedium and inner dental epithelium at cap stages. Syndecan-3 shows a gradually increased expression that initially in the dental epithelium of both incisors and molars and then in the inner dental epithelium and stratum intermedium in molars alone. Syndecan-4 is localized in the dental epithelium in incisors and the dental follicle mesenchyme in molars at early cap stage. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Syndecans in murine embryonic teeth suggest potential roles of these proteoglycans in murine tooth morphogenesis.