The importance of the ZBED6‐IGF2 axis for metabolic regulation in mouse myoblast cells
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The transcription factor ZBED6 acts as a repressor of Igf2 and affects directly or indirectly the transcriptional regulation of thousands of genes. Here, we use gene editing in mouse C2C12 myoblasts and show that ZBED6 regulates Igf2 exclusively through its binding site 5'-GGCTCG-3' in intron 1 of Igf2. Deletion of this motif (Igf2ΔGGCT ) or complete ablation of Zbed6 leads to ~20-fold upregulation of the IGF2 protein. Quantitative proteomics revealed an activation of Ras signaling pathway in both Zbed6-/- and Igf2ΔGGCT myoblasts, and a significant enrichment of mitochondrial membrane proteins among proteins showing altered expression in Zbed6-/- myoblasts. Both Zbed6-/- and Igf2ΔGGCT myoblasts showed a faster growth rate and developed myotube hypertrophy. These cells exhibited an increased O2 consumption rate, due to IGF2 upregulation. Transcriptome analysis revealed ~30% overlap between differentially expressed genes in Zbed6-/- and Igf2ΔGGCT myotubes, with an enrichment of upregulated genes involved in muscle development. In contrast, ZBED6-overexpression in myoblasts led to cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, reduced mitochondrial activities, and ceased myoblast differentiation. The similarities in growth and differentiation phenotypes observed in Zbed6-/- and Igf2ΔGGCT myoblasts demonstrates that ZBED6 affects mitochondrial activity and myogenesis largely through its regulation of IGF2 expression. This study adds new insights how the ZBED6-Igf2 axis affects muscle metabolism.
author list (cited authors)
Younis, S., Naboulsi, R., Wang, X., Cao, X., Larsson, M., Sargsyan, E., ... Andersson, L.