Concept and demonstration of a fully coupled and dynamic exposure-response methodology for crowd evacuation numerical modelling in airborne-toxic environments
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Evacuation simulation plays an indispensable role when planning for emergencies and evaluating the consequences of disasters related to airborne toxics. Various attempts have been made to improve simulation of evacuation in toxic environments and to account for the varying concentration levels and the dynamic exposure. However, most studies neglect the reverse effect, how the exposure and dosage levels affect the physical and psychological state of an evacuee and consequently the evacuation path and process. In this work, a fully coupled exposure-response-evacuation and agent based algorithm is proposed, focusing on the H2S airborne toxic. Accordingly, the dynamically estimated exposure of the evacuee affects, non-linearly, the evacuation speed and thus the overall evacuation. This coupling is challenging and thus it depends on the available epidemiological and toxicological data. Nevertheless, the diversity and advantages of the algorithm is successfully demonstrated over three case studies including single- and multi-agent in straight-path and building evacuation scenarios. For example, the building evacuation time increased by more than 50% by inclusion of the aforementioned coupling. In conclusion, herein, a gap on the evacuation modelling is addressed by a fully coupled methodology that could be easily adapted by safety engineers and further improved by researchers as more data become available.
author list (cited authors)
Shaikh, N., Kakosimos, K. E., Adia, N., & Véchot, L.