Depression of lipogenesis in swine adipose tissue by specific dietary fatty acids.
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The objective of this study was to document the influence of specific dietary fatty acids on rates of lipid synthesis and sensitivity to insulin in porcine adipose tissue. Weanling pigs were assigned to one of six groups, and each group was fed diets containing 10 g/100 g of added cornstarch or 10 g/100 g of added fatty acid. The fatty acid-enriched diets contained either a combination of 14:1 plus 16:1 (14:1/16:1 diet), 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, or 18:2 (n-6). With the exception of the cornstarch diet, all diets contained approximately 35% 14:0. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from the area overlying the first cranial vertebra. Fresh samples were incubated for 2 h in 20 mM glucose and 0, 10, 100 or 1,000 microU/mL of porcine insulin. The smallest adipocytes were observed in adipose tissue from pigs fed the 16:0 or 18:2 diets. Glucose incorporation into lipids was greater (P < .05) in adipose tissue from cornstarch-fed pigs than in adipose tissue from the other treatment groups. Lipogenesis was 67, 53, 35, 32, and 20% lower (P < .05) in adipose tissue from 16:0-, 14:1/16:1-, 18:0-, 18:2-, and 18:1-fed pigs, respectively, than in adipose tissue from the cornstarch-fed pigs. Insulin increased lipogenesis by 19% (P < .05) in adipose tissue from the cornstarch-fed pigs and by 15 to 40% (P < .05) in adipose tissue from the 14:1/16:1-fed pigs. Insulin did not stimulate lipogenesis (P > .4) in adipose tissue from pigs fed the 16:0, 18:0, or 18:1 diets. The data suggest that fatty acid chain length and unsaturation are determinants in the effects of dietary fat and insulin on de novo lipogenesis.