Congestive heart failure-related hospital deaths across the urban-rural continuum in the United States. Academic Article uri icon


  • Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a growing public health problem that affects nearly 6.5 million individuals nationwide. Access to quality outpatient care and disease management programs has been shown to improve disease treatment and prognosis. Rural populations face unique challenges in the availability and accessibility of quality cardiovascular care. In 2018, we conducted a pooled cross-sectional analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for 2009-2014 to examine recent trends in CHF-related hospital deaths in the United States, highlighting urban-rural differences within each census region. We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to compare the odds of CHF-related hospital death, by levels of rurality and within each census region. Most CHF-related hospital deaths occurred in the South and Midwest census regions and in large central metropolitan areas. Findings from census region stratified models revealed that non-core residents living within the West (OR 1.47, CI 1.26, 1.71), Midwest (OR 1.30, CI 1.17, 1.44), and South (OR = 1.21, 95% C.I. = 1.12-1.32) had a higher relative risk (but not higher absolute numbers) of experiencing death during a CHF-related hospitalization, compared to patients in large central metropolitan areas. Within each census region, there were also differences in odds of a CHF-related hospital death depending on patient sex, comorbidities, insurance type, median annual income, and year. As efforts to reduce rural health disparities in CHF morbidity continue, more work is needed to understand and test interventions to reduce the risk of death from CHF in noncore areas of the West, Midwest, and South.

published proceedings

  • Prev Med Rep

altmetric score

  • 8.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Primm, K., Ferdinand, A. O., Callaghan, T., Akinlotan, M. A., Towne, S. D., & Bolin, J.

citation count

  • 8

complete list of authors

  • Primm, Kristin||Ferdinand, Alva O||Callaghan, Timothy||Akinlotan, Marvellous A||Towne, Samuel D||Bolin, Jane

publication date

  • December 2019