Relationship between locomotor forces, hoof position and joint motion during the support phase of the stride of galloping horses. Academic Article uri icon


  • Three methods were used simultaneously to determine the relationships between the vertical forces exerted on the hooves and the positions of the limbs and hooves at the times of peak vertical forces from 2 horses galloping on a track straightaway. Vertical forces were recorded from an instrumented shoe, fetlock joint motion was measured with an electrogoniometer and the angles of the carpus, fetlock and hoof were determined from slow-motion films. At hoof contact, the mean angles of the carpus and fetlock were 181-182 degrees and 199-206 degrees, respectively. Peak vertical forces on the heel occurred at or near maximum extension of the carpal and fetlock joints. Peak forces on the toe occurred during flexion of the fetlock joint and at mean hoof angles of 28-31 degrees from the horizontal. The mean angles of the hoof from the horizontal at the time of heel contact were 6-7 degrees. Hoof lift occurred at mean carpal angles of 173-174 degrees and mean fetlock angles of 199-200 degrees.

published proceedings

  • Acta Anat (Basel)

author list (cited authors)

  • Ratzlaff, M. H., Wilson, P. D., Hyde, M. L., Balch, O. K., & Grant, B. D.

citation count

  • 21

complete list of authors

  • Ratzlaff, MH||Wilson, PD||Hyde, ML||Balch, OK||Grant, BD

publication date

  • January 1993