Comprehensive molecular cytogenetic analysis of sorghum genome architecture: distribution of euchromatin, heterochromatin, genes and recombination in comparison to rice.
Additional Document Info
Cytogenetic maps of sorghum chromosomes 3-7, 9, and 10 were constructed on the basis of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of approximately 18-30 BAC probes mapped across each of these chromosomes. Distal regions of euchromatin and pericentromeric regions of heterochromatin were delimited for all 10 sorghum chromosomes and their DNA content quantified. Euchromatic DNA spans approximately 50% of the sorghum genome, ranging from approximately 60% of chromosome 1 (SBI-01) to approximately 33% of chromosome 7 (SBI-07). This portion of the sorghum genome is predicted to encode approximately 70% of the sorghum genes ( approximately 1 gene model/12.3 kbp), assuming that rice and sorghum encode a similar number of genes. Heterochromatin spans approximately 411 Mbp of the sorghum genome, a region characterized by a approximately 34-fold lower rate of recombination and approximately 3-fold lower gene density compared to euchromatic DNA. The sorghum and rice genomes exhibit a high degree of macrocolinearity; however, the sorghum genome is approximately 2-fold larger than the rice genome. The distal euchromatic regions of sorghum chromosomes 3-7 and 10 are approximately 1.8-fold larger overall and exhibit an approximately 1.5-fold lower average rate of recombination than the colinear regions of the homeologous rice chromosomes. By contrast, the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions of these chromosomes are on average approximately 3.6-fold larger in sorghum and recombination is suppressed approximately 15-fold compared to the colinear regions of rice chromosomes.