Incidence, Severity, and Characterization of Phytophthora Foot Rot of Citrus in Texas and Implications for Disease Management.
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Phytophthora-induced foot rot, also known as gummosis, is an important disease affecting citrus production worldwide. In Texas, the third-largest citrus-producing state in the United States, limited information is available on the etiology and epidemiology of foot rot in commercial orchards. This study comprises a survey of foot rot incidence and severity in Texas and the characterization of Phytophthora isolates associated with the disease. Surveys in 2015 and 2017 of 30 orchards in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) region where commercial citrus production is concentrated in the state revealed that foot rot occurred in 97% of the orchards assessed. Overall, foot rot symptoms were observed on 33.7% of the trees evaluated and the disease severity index in the region was rated at 14.2 and 16.5% in 2015 and 2017, respectively. Lesions were mostly present on the scion, while the rootstock (sour orange) was not affected. Phytophthora nicotianae was the only Phytophthora sp. isolated from the surveyed orchards and from five additional residential sites on the Texas Coastal Bend (TCB). Sporangia and chlamydospores from 34 representative LRGV isolates of P. nicotianae were larger than those of TCB isolates. In both LRGV and TCB, A1 and A2 mating types were present in the same location, albeit the A2 mating type was more prevalent. All isolates were sensitive to mefenoxam (50% inhibition in the presence of mefenoxam [EC50] < 0.5 g/ml), except for one TCB isolate (EC50 = 143.6 g/ml). Our research indicates that treatment for Phytophthora foot rot in the region is necessary and, although mefenoxam is still useful, alternating chemistries for resistance management are required.
author list (cited authors)
Chaudhary, S., Laughlin, D. A., Setamou, M., da Graa, J. V., Kunta, M., Alabi, O. J., ... Ancona, V.
complete list of authors
Chaudhary, Shima||Laughlin, David A||Setamou, Mamoudou||da Graça, John V||Kunta, Madhurababu||Alabi, Olufemi J||Crosby, Kevin M||Ong, Kevin L||Ancona, Veronica