Microscopic Assessment of Healing and Effectiveness of a Foam-Based Peripheral Occlusion Device. Academic Article uri icon


  • The IMPEDE Embolization Plug is a catheter-delivered vascular occlusion device that utilizes a porous shape memory polymer foam as a scaffold for thrombus formation and distal coils to anchor the device within the vessel. In this study, we investigated the biological response of porcine arteries to the IMPEDE device by assessing the extent of healing and overall effectiveness in occluding the vessel at 30, 60, and 90 days. Compared to control devices (Amplatzer Vascular Plug and Nester Embolization Coils), the host response to IMPEDE showed increased cellular infiltration (accommodated by the foam scaffold), which led to advanced healing of the initial thrombus to mature collagenous connective tissue (confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)). Over time, the host response to the IMPEDE device included degradation of the foam by multinucleated giant cells, which promoted fibrin and polymer degradation and advanced the healing response. Device effectiveness, in terms of vessel occlusion, was evaluated histologically by assessing the degree of recanalization. Although instances of recanalization were often observed at all time points for both control and test articles, the mature connective tissue within the foam scaffold of the IMPEDE devices improved percent vessel occlusion; when recanalization was observed in IMPEDE-treated vessels, channels were exclusively peri-device rather than intradevice, as often observed in the controls, and the vessels mostly remained >75% occluded. Although total vessel occlusion provides the optimal ischemic effect, in cardiovascular pathology, there is a progressive ischemic effect on the downstream vasculature as a vessel narrows. As such, we expect a sustained ischemic therapeutic effect to be observed in vessels greater than 75% occluded. Overall, the current study suggests the IMPEDE device presents advantages over controls by promoting an enhanced degree of healing within the foam scaffold, which decreases the likelihood of intradevice recanalization and ultimately may lead to a sustained ischemic therapeutic effect.

published proceedings

  • ACS Biomater Sci Eng

altmetric score

  • 67

author list (cited authors)

  • Jessen, S. L., Friedemann, M. C., Ginn-Hedman, A., Graul, L. M., Jokerst, S., Robinson, C. B., ... Maitland, D. J.

citation count

  • 16

complete list of authors

  • Jessen, Staci L||Friedemann, Molly C||Ginn-Hedman, Anne-Marie||Graul, Lance M||Jokerst, Steven||Robinson, Cedric B||Landsman, Todd L||Clubb, Fred J||Maitland, Duncan J

publication date

  • May 2020