Biphasic stress response in the soleus during reloading after hind limb unloading.
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INTRODUCTION: Extreme disuse and spaceflight elicit rapid skeletal muscle atrophy, accompanied by elevated proinflammatory signaling and impaired stress response proteins (e.g., heat shock proteins (HSP), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)). Recovery of muscle mass is delayed during the early stage of reloading after prolonged unloading, with a concomitant impairment of HSP70 and IGF-1. We postulated that proinflammatory signaling and stress response alterations would characterize early and late phases of signaling during reloading. METHODS: Twenty-four adult SD rats were divided into the following groups: controls, 28 d of hind limb unloading (HU), HU + early (7 d) reloading (HU-R7), and HU + late (28 d) reloading (HU-R28). RESULTS: Soleus mass decreased (-55%) with HU and remained depressed (-41%) at HU-R7. Nuclear factor B activation and oxidative stress were elevated with HU and remained high during reloading. HU elevated inducible nitric oxide synthase and returned to baseline during reloading, whereas 3-nitrotyrosine did not increase with HU and peaked at HU-R7. HU depressed levels of HSP25 phosphorylation at Ser82 and IGF-1. Although p-HSP25 and Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) recovered during early reloading, HSP70, heat shock factor 1, and IGF-1 remained depressed. HSP70, heat shock factor 1, and IGF-1 recovered, whereas p-Akt and 3-nitrotyrosine decreased to control levels at HU-R28. CONCLUSIONS: Reloading elicited an early phase characterized by elevated nuclear factor B activation, 3-nitrotyrosine, p-HSP25, and p-Akt levels and a delayed phase with recovery of HSP70, IGF-1, and muscle mass. We conclude that the reloading phenotype in skeletal muscle is expressed in two distinct phases related to (a) pro-inflammatory signaling and (b) muscle mass recovery.
author list (cited authors)
Lawler, J. M., Kwak, H., Kim, J., Lee, Y., Hord, J. M., & Martinez, D. A.
complete list of authors
Lawler, John M||Kwak, Hyo-Bum||Kim, Jong-Hee||Lee, Yang||Hord, Jeffrey M||Martinez, Daniel A