Proapoptotic effects of dietary (n-3) fatty acids are enhanced in colonocytes of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase knockout mice.
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We recently demonstrated that (n-3) PUFA trigger the induction of apoptosis in the colon by enhancing phospholipid oxidation and mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. To further elucidate the mechanisms regulating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vivo, a 2 x 2 experiment was designed using both wild type (control) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2) heterozygous knockout mice (SOD2(+/-)), which exhibit increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Mice were fed diets differing only in the type of fat [corn oil or fish oil containing (n-3) PUFA] at 15% by weight for 4 wk. Dietary (n-3) PUFA treatment enhanced (22%) apoptosis in colonic crypts. In addition, SOD2 haploinsufficiency enhanced (20%) apoptosis, which was further increased (36%) by (n-3) PUFA feeding. Dietary lipid source and genotype interactively modulated nitrotyrosine levels (P = 0.027) and inflammation (P = 0.032). These findings demonstrate that the proapoptotic effects of (n-3) PUFA are enhanced in oxidatively stressed SOD2(+/-) mice. Thus, (n-3) PUFA appear to promote an oxidation-reduction imbalance in the intestine, which may directly or indirectly trigger apoptosis and thereby reduce colon cancer risk.