Principal Component Analysis of Two-Dimensional Functional Data
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© 2014 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America. This article presents and compares two approaches of principal component (PC) analysis for two-dimensional functional data on a possibly irregular domain. The first approach applies the singular value decomposition of the data matrix obtained from a fine discretization of the two-dimensional functions. When the functions are only observed at discrete points that are possibly sparse and may differ from function to function, this approach incorporates an initial smoothing step prior to the singular value decomposition. The second approach employs a mixed effects model that specifies the PC functions as bivariate splines on triangulations and the PC scores as random effects. We apply the thin-plate penalty for regularizing the function estimation and develop an effective expectation–maximization algorithm for calculating the penalized likelihood estimates of the parameters. The mixed effects model-based approach integrates scatterplot smoothing and functional PC analysis in a unified framework and is shown in a simulation study to be more efficient than the two-step approach that separately performs smoothing and PC analysis. The proposed methods are applied to analyze the temperature variation in Texas using 100 years of temperature data recorded by Texas weather stations. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.
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