Flexural strength and Weibull characteristics of stereolithography additive manufactured versus milled zirconia
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STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Zirconia restorations can be processed by using stereolithography additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, whether additive manufactured zirconia could achieve flexural strength values comparable with those of milled zirconia is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the flexural strength and Weibull characteristics of milled and additive manufactured zirconia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 40 zirconia bars (25×4×1.2 mm) were obtained by using 2 manufacturing procedures, subtractive (CNC group) (IPS e.max ZirCAD; Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and additive manufacturing (AM group) (3DMix ZrO2; 3DCeram) technologies and assigned to 2 subgroups according to accelerating artificial aging procedures (mastication simulation): nonaged and aged (n=10). Flexural strength was measured in all specimens by using 3-point bend tests according to ISO/CD 6872.2 with a universal testing machine (Instron Model 8501; Instron Corp). Two-parameter Weibull distribution values, including the Weibull modulus, scale (m), and shape (0) were calculated. Flexural strength values were analyzed by using 2-way ANOVA and Student t statistical tests (α=.05). RESULTS: The manufacturing procedure (P<.001), the mastication simulating aging procedure (P<.001), and the interaction between them (P<.001) significantly affected flexural strength values. The CNC group exhibited statistically higher flexural strength values than those in the AM group when the specimens were tested before performing an aging procedure (P<.001) and after mastication simulation (P<.001). Moreover, mastication simulation produced a significant reduction in flexural strength for both the CNC group (P<.039) and the AM group (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The manufacturing process reported a significant effect on the flexural strength of the zirconia material tested. Mastication simulation as a means of accelerating artificial aging resulted in the significantly decreased flexural strength values of milled and additively manufactured zirconia material, with the Weibull moduli being significantly higher for the milled groups versus the milled specimens.
author list (cited authors)
Revilla-León, M., Al-Haj Husain, N., Ceballos, L., & Özcan, M.