Discrepancy at the implant abutment-prosthesis interface of complete-arch cobalt-chromium implant frameworks fabricated by additive and subtractive technologies before and after ceramic veneering
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STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Selective laser melting additive manufacturing (AM) technologies can be used to fabricate complete-arch cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) implant-supported prostheses. However, the discrepancy at the implant-prosthesis interface with these fabrication techniques and after ceramic veneering remains unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present in vitro investigation was to measure the discrepancy at the implant abutment-prosthesis interface before and after the ceramic veneering of frameworks fabricated by using subtractive and selective laser melting AM technologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A completely edentulous cast with 6 implant abutment replicas (Multi-unit Abutment RP Replicas; Nobel Biocare Services AG) was prepared. A total of 20 Co-Cr frameworks were fabricated using subtractive or computer numerical control milling (CNC group) and additive (AM group) technologies (n=10). A coordinate measurement machine was used to measure the linear and angular discrepancy at the implant abutment-prosthesis interface. Subsequently, a ceramic veneer was applied to each framework following the same standardized protocol. A bonding layer (Chromium-Cobalt Bonding; Bredent), 2 opaquer layers (Powder opaque and liquid UF; Creation CC), a layer of dentin ceramic (Dentine A3; Creation CC), a layer of enamel ceramic (Enamel S-59; Creation CC), and a glaze layer (Glaze paste and Liquid GL; Creation CC) were applied following the manufacturer's firing protocol. Coordinate measurement machine assessment was repeated to measure the linear and angular discrepancies after ceramic veneering procedures. Data were analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signedrank and Mann-Whitney U tests (α=.05). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences (P>.05) were demonstrated in assessing the discrepancies at the implant abutment-prosthesis interface between the groups except for the XZ angle of the CNC group (P<.05). Ceramic techniques produced significantly higher linear and angular discrepancies in both groups (P<.001) with a mean ±standard deviation increase in the 3-dimensional gap of 36.9 ±15.6 μm in the CNC group and 38.9 ±16.6 μm in the AM group. The AM group presented significantly higher discrepancy in the x-axis than the CNC group (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Manufacturing procedures did not significantly influence the discrepancy at the implant abutment-prosthesis interface, which was significantly increased after ceramic veneering, except for the XZ angle of the CNC group. The differences between the discrepancies at the implant abutment-prosthesis interface before and after ceramic application revealed no significant discrepancies among the groups, except in the AM group that presented a significantly higher discrepancy on the x-axis compared with the CNC group.
author list (cited authors)
Revilla-León, M., Sánchez-Rubio, J. L., Pérez-López, J., Rubenstein, J., & Özcan, M.