Melatonin improves uterine-conceptus interaction via regulation of SIRT1 during early pregnancy.
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Melatonin has been shown to improve in vitro fertilization and offspring survival after bacterial infection, but its role in regulating maternal-fetal communication during early pregnancy has not been investigated. Results of this study demonstrated expression of abundant melatonin receptors in conceptus and endometrium during early pregnancy. In gilts, expression of melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A or MT1) and melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B or MT2) increased in trophectoderm (Tr) and uterine luminal epithelium (LE) with advancing days during early pregnancy in a different manner. Melatonin increased proliferation and migration of porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cell, the percent pTr cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, and the expression of implantation-related genes by pTr cells and endometrial luminal epithelium (pLE). Melatonin also attenuated the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-sensing proteins. The expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) as a potential target of melatonin increased between Days 9 and 14 of gestation. Co-treatment with SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 and melatonin restored cell-cell interactions through PI3K and MAPK signaling. Knockdown of SIRT1 decreased the expression of implantation-related genes, as well as migration of pTr and pLE cells. The expression of microRNAs regulated by SIRT1 was suppressed in response to melatonin. Furthermore, melatonin significantly increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reduced fertilization and embryogenesis in zebrafish model. These results suggest that melatonin may improve the uterine-conceptus interactions via the regulation of SIRT1 during early pregnancy.