With the growing population and climate change, increasing demands for water are intensifying competition between agricultural stakeholders. Since the mid-20th century, numerous crop models and modeling techniques have emerged for the quantitative assessment of cropping systems. This article introduces a collection of articles that explore current research in model applications for sustainable agricultural water use. The collection includes articles from model development to regional and field-scale applications addressing management effects, model uncertainty, irrigation decision support systems, and new methods for simulating salt balances. Further work is needed to integrate data science, modern sensor systems, and remote sensing technologies with the models in order to investigate the sustainability of agricultural systems in regions affected by land-use change and climate change.