Peptidomimetic Vinyl Heterocyclic Inhibitors of Cruzain Effect Antitrypanosomal Activity.
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Cruzain, an essential cysteine protease of the parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important drug target for Chagas disease. We describe here a new series of reversible but time-dependent inhibitors of cruzain, composed of a dipeptide scaffold appended to vinyl heterocycles meant to provide replacements for the irreversible reactive "warheads" of vinyl sulfone inactivators of cruzain. Peptidomimetic vinyl heterocyclic inhibitors (PVHIs) containing Cbz-Phe-Phe/homoPhe scaffolds with vinyl-2-pyrimidine, vinyl-2-pyridine, and vinyl-2-(N-methyl)-pyridine groups conferred reversible, time-dependent inhibition of cruzain (Ki* = 0.1-0.4 μM). These cruzain inhibitors exhibited moderate to excellent selectivity versus human cathepsins B, L, and S and showed no apparent toxicity to human cells but were effective in cell cultures of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (EC50 = 1-15 μM) and eliminated T. cruzi in infected murine cardiomyoblasts (EC50 = 5-8 μM). PVHIs represent a new class of cruzain inhibitors that could progress to viable candidate compounds to treat Chagas disease and human sleeping sickness.
author list (cited authors)
Chenna, B. C., Li, L., Mellott, D. M., Zhai, X., Siqueira-Neto, J. L., Calvet Alvarez, C., ... Meek, T. D.
complete list of authors
Chenna, Bala C||Li, Linfeng||Mellott, Drake M||Zhai, Xiang||Siqueira-Neto, Jair L||Calvet Alvarez, Claudia||Bernatchez, Jean A||Desormeaux, Emily||Alvarez Hernandez, Elizabeth||Gomez, Jana||McKerrow, James H||Cruz-Reyes, Jorge||Meek, Thomas D