Effects of Milling Time, Zirconia Addition, and Storage Environment on the Radiopacity Performance of Mechanically Milled Bi2O3/ZrO2 Composite Powders. Academic Article uri icon


  • Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) typically consists of Portland cement (75 wt.%), bismuth oxide (20 wt.%), and gypsum (5 wt.%) and is commonly used as endodontic cement. Bismuth oxide serving as the radiopacifying material reveals the canal filling effect after clinical treatment. In the present study, bismuth/zirconium oxide composite powder was prepared by high energy ball milling of (Bi2O3)100-x (ZrO2)x (x = 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.%) powder mixture and used as the radiopacifiers within MTA. The crystalline phases of the as-milled powders were examined by the X-ray diffraction technique. The radiopacities of MTA-like cements prepared by using as-milled composite powders (at various milling stages or different amount of zirconia addition) were examined. In addition, the stability of the as-milled powders stored in an ambient environment, an electronic dry box, or a glove box was investigated. The experimental results show that the as-milled powder exhibited the starting powder phases of Bi2O3 and ZrO2 and the newly formed -Bi7.38Zr0.62O2.31 phase. The longer the milling time or the larger the amount of the zirconia addition, the higher the percentage of the -Bi7.38Zr0.62O2.31 phase in the composite powder. All the MTA-like cements prepared by the as-milled powder exhibited a radiopacity higher than 4 mmAl that is better than the 3 mmAl ISO standard requirement. The 30 min as-milled (Bi2O3)95(ZrO2)5 composite powder exhibited a radiopacity of 5.82 0.33 mmAl and degraded significantly in the ambient environment. However, storing under an oxygen- and humidity-controlled glove box can prolong a high radiopacity performance. The radiopacity was 5.76 0.08 mmAl after 28 days in a glove box that was statistically the same as the original composite powder.

published proceedings

  • Materials (Basel)

author list (cited authors)

  • Chen, M., Lin, H., Cheng, Y., Fang, A., Chen, C., Lee, P., & Lin, C.

citation count

  • 7

complete list of authors

  • Chen, May-Show||Lin, Hsiu-Na||Cheng, Yu-Chun||Fang, Alex||Chen, Chin-Yi||Lee, Pee-Yew||Lin, Chung-Kwei

publication date

  • January 2020