Mechanistic mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) cell signaling: Effects of select nutrients and secreted phosphoprotein 1 on development of mammalian conceptuses
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Morphological differentiation of uterine glands in mammals is a postnatal event vulnerable to adverse effects of endocrine disruptors. Exposure of ewe lambs to a progestin from birth to postnatal day 56 prevents development of uterine glands and, as adults, the ewes are unable to exhibit estrous cycles or maintain pregnancy. Uterine epithelia secrete proteins and transport nutrients into the uterine lumen necessary for conceptus development, pregnancy recognition signaling and implantation, including arginine and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1). Arginine can be metabolized to nitric oxide and to polyamines or act directly to activate MTOR cell signaling to stimulate proliferation, migration, and mRNA translation in trophectoderm cells. SPP1 binds αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins and induces focal adhesion assembly, adhesion and migration of conceptus trophectoderm cells during implantation. Thus, arginine and SPP1 mediate growth, migration, cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion of trophectoderm essential for pregnancy recognition signaling and implantation.
author list (cited authors)
Bazer, F. W., Song, G., Kim, J., Erikson, D. W., Johnson, G. A., Burghardt, R. C., ... Wu, G.