Measuring Externalities: The Imperative Next Step to Sustainability Assessment in Sport Academic Article uri icon


  • A paradox exists between the ways sport organizations evaluate their economic impact, compared with their environmental impact. Although the initial sustainability and corporate social responsibility efforts of sport organizations should be celebrated, it is appropriate to call for the next advancement concerning the assessment and measurement of environmental sustainability efforts in sport organizations. Specifically, there is a need for improved and increased monitoring and measurement of sustainable practices that include negative environmental externalities. To usher this advancement, the authors first reviewed the extant research and current industry practice involving environmental impact reporting in sport. Second, the authors proposed a conceptual framework that expands the scope of environmental assessment to be more comprehensive. As such, this expanded, yet more accurate, assessment of environmental impact can identify specific aspects of the event and the inputs and outputs of the before and after event phases that can be curtailed or modified to reduce environmental impacts of sport events.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 161.41

author list (cited authors)

  • McCullough, B. P., Orr, M., & Watanabe, N. M.

citation count

  • 37

complete list of authors

  • McCullough, Brian P||Orr, Madeleine||Watanabe, Nicholas M

publication date

  • September 2020