Effects of transverse bodily movements of maxillary premolars on the surrounding hard tissue
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INTRODUCTION: This experimental study was designed to (1) produce buccal translation of maxillary premolars and (2) evaluate the effects on the buccal alveolar bone. METHODS: A randomized split-mouth study was designed based on 7 adult male beagle dogs. The experimental side received a custom cantilever appliance fabricated to produce a translatory force through the maxillary second premolar's center of resistance. The contralateral second premolar received no appliance and served as the control. The premolars underwent 6-7 weeks of buccal translation, followed by 3 weeks of fixed retention. Biweekly tooth movements were evaluated using intraoral and radiographic measurements. Pretreatment and posttreatment models were measured to assess tipping. Three-dimensional microscopic tomography was used to quantify the amount and density of buccal bone. Bone formation and turnover were assessed using fluorescent labeling, hematoxylin and eosin staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and bone sialoprotein immunostaining. RESULTS: The applied force (100 g of force) translated (1.4 mm) and minimally tipped (4°) the experimental teeth. Lateral translation produced dehiscences at the mesial and distal roots, with 2.0 mm and 2.2 mm loss of vertical bone height, respectively. Bone thickness decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at the apical (∼0.4 mm), midroot (∼0.4 mm), and coronal (∼0.2 mm) levels. Fluorescent imaging, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunostaining for bone sialoprotein all showed new bone formation extending along the entire periosteal surface of the second premolar's buccal plate. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining demonstrated greater osteoclastic activity on the experimental than that of control sections. CONCLUSIONS: New buccal bone forms on the periosteal surface during and after tooth translation, but the amount of bone that forms is less than the amount of bone loss, resulting in a net decrease in buccal bone thickness and a loss of crestal bone.
author list (cited authors)
Christoph, K. M., Campbell, P. M., Feng, J. Q., Taylor, R. W., Jacob, H. B., & Buschang, P. H.