Built and Natural Environmental Correlates of Parental Safety Concerns for Children's Active Travel to School. Academic Article uri icon


  • This cross-sectional study examines built and natural environmental correlates of parental safety concerns for children's active travel to school (ATS), controlling for socio-demographic, attitudinal, and social factors. Questionnaire surveys (n = 3291) completed by parents who had 1st-6th grade children were collected in 2011 from 20 elementary schools in Austin, Texas. Objectively-measured built and natural environmental data were derived from two software programs: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI). Ordinal least square regressions were used for statistical analyses in this study. Results from the fully adjusted final model showed that bike lanes, the presence of highway and railroads, the presence of sex offenders, and steep slopes along the home-to-school route were associated with increased parental safety concerns, while greater intersection density and greater tree canopy coverage along the route were associated with decreased parental safety concerns. Natural elements and walking-friendly elements of the built environment appear important in reducing parental safety concerns, which is a necessary step toward promoting children's ATS.

published proceedings

  • Int J Environ Res Public Health

author list (cited authors)

  • Kim, Y., & Lee, C.

citation count

  • 7

complete list of authors

  • Kim, Young-Jae||Lee, Chanam

publication date

  • January 2020