Clinical monitoring of cardiac output assessed by transoesophageal echocardiography in anaesthetised dogs: a comparison with the thermodilution technique.
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BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) is an important haemodynamic parameter to monitor in patients during surgery. However, the majority of the techniques for measuring CO have a limited application in veterinary practice due to their invasive approach and associated complexity and risks. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a technique used to monitor cardiac function in human patients during surgical procedures and allows CO to be measured non-invasively. This prospective clinical study aimed to compare the transoesophageal echocardiography using a transgastric view of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the thermodilution (TD) technique for the assessment of CO during mean arterial pressure of 65-80 mmHg (normotension) and <65 mmHg (hypotension) in dogs undergoing elective surgery. Eight dogs were pre-medicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM), tramadol (4 mg/kg, IM) and atropine (0.03 mg/kg, IM), followed by anaesthetic induction with propofol (3-5 mg/kg IV) and maintenance with isoflurane associated with a continuous infusion rate of fentanyl (bolus of 3 μg/kg followed by 0.3 μg/kg/min). The CO was measured by TEE (COTEE) and TD (COTD) at the end of expiration during normotension and hypotension (induced by isoflurane). RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between COTEE and COTD (r = 0.925; P < 0.0001). The bias between COTD and COTEE was 0.14 ± 0.29 L/min (limits of agreement, -0.44 to 0.72 L/min). The percentage error of CO measured by the two methods was 12.32%. In addition, a strong positive correlation was found between COTEE and COTD during normotension (r = 0.995; P < 0.0001) and hypotension (r = 0.78; P = 0.0223). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that the transgastric view of the LVOT by TEE was a minimally invasive alternative to clinically monitoring CO in dogs during anaesthesia. However, during hypotension, the CO obtained by TEE was less reliable, although still acceptable.
author list (cited authors)
Mantovani, M. M., Fantoni, D. T., Gimenes, A. M., de Castro, J. R., Flor, P. B., Ida, K. K., & Schwartz, D. S.
complete list of authors
Mantovani, Matheus M||Fantoni, Denise T||Gimenes, André M||de Castro, Jacqueline R||Flor, Patrícia B||Ida, Keila K||Schwartz, Denise S