Clinical monitoring of cardiac output assessed by transoesophageal echocardiography in anaesthetised dogs: a comparison with the thermodilution technique. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) is an important haemodynamic parameter to monitor in patients during surgery. However, the majority of the techniques for measuring CO have a limited application in veterinary practice due to their invasive approach and associated complexity and risks. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a technique used to monitor cardiac function in human patients during surgical procedures and allows CO to be measured non-invasively. This prospective clinical study aimed to compare the transoesophageal echocardiography using a transgastric view of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the thermodilution (TD) technique for the assessment of CO during mean arterial pressure of 65-80 mmHg (normotension) and <65 mmHg (hypotension) in dogs undergoing elective surgery. Eight dogs were pre-medicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM), tramadol (4 mg/kg, IM) and atropine (0.03 mg/kg, IM), followed by anaesthetic induction with propofol (3-5 mg/kg IV) and maintenance with isoflurane associated with a continuous infusion rate of fentanyl (bolus of 3 μg/kg followed by 0.3 μg/kg/min). The CO was measured by TEE (COTEE) and TD (COTD) at the end of expiration during normotension and hypotension (induced by isoflurane). RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between COTEE and COTD ​​(r = 0.925; P < 0.0001). The bias between COTD and COTEE was 0.14 ± 0.29 L/min (limits of agreement, -0.44 to 0.72 L/min). The percentage error of CO measured by the two methods was 12.32%. In addition, a strong positive correlation was found between COTEE and COTD during normotension (r = 0.995; P < 0.0001) and hypotension (r = 0.78; P = 0.0223). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that the transgastric view of the LVOT by TEE was a minimally invasive alternative to clinically monitoring CO in dogs during anaesthesia. However, during hypotension, the CO obtained by TEE was less reliable, although still acceptable.

published proceedings

  • BMC Vet Res

altmetric score

  • 0.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Mantovani, M. M., Fantoni, D. T., Gimenes, A. M., de Castro, J. R., Flor, P. B., Ida, K. K., & Schwartz, D. S.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Mantovani, Matheus M||Fantoni, Denise T||Gimenes, André M||de Castro, Jacqueline R||Flor, Patrícia B||Ida, Keila K||Schwartz, Denise S

publication date

  • November 2017