Normative ocular data for juvenile and adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
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OBJECTIVE: To obtain normative ocular data for Japanese quail as they mature from juveniles to adults. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-six captive Japanese quail comprising thirteen males and thirteen females, free of ocular disease, were included in the study. PROCEDURES: Ophthalmic reference values were measured in both eyes at 1 and 5 months of age. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including neuro-ophthalmic reflexes, slit lamp biomicroscopy, phenol red thread test (PRTT), rebound tonometry, fluorescein staining, horizontal corneal diameter measurement, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and ocular ultrasound biometry. Ultrasound biomicroscopy measurements of axial globe length, lens thickness, vitreal chamber length, and pecten length were recorded. The depth of the anterior chamber was calculated by subtracting the lens thickness and vitreous length from the axial globe length. Measures of association and descriptive statistics were analyzed using STATA-14 and STATA-15. RESULTS: Juvenile and adult females were heavier than age-matched males. Weight, intraocular pressure, horizontal corneal diameter, axial globe length, and lens thickness measurements increased with age. No statistically significant differences were found in the remainder of measurements among individuals in different sex or age-groups. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides reference values and clinical findings that can be used in future research on quail and ocular disease.
author list (cited authors)
Presby, J. A., Scott, E. M., Norman, K. N., Hoppes, S. M., & Tizard, I.