In this article, the authors investigate the achievement gap in the context of a particular region and the factors associated with student learning in that region. Data were collected over several years from recent administrations of the mathematics section of the Measurement of Academic Progress in Colorado. Black and Hispanic mathematics achievement and growth were compared to White student achievement and growth. The results indicate that gaps exist not only in mathematics achievement but also in mathematics growth. A statistically significant difference in mathematics growth rates between Black and Hispanic students from different economic backgrounds were found; however, a statistically significant difference in mathematics growth rates by gender was only found in Black and Hispanic third grade students. The authors provide explanations as well as implications of the factors associated with the results with the hope of influencing research and practice.