Earthquake-resistant structures have been widely investigated in order to produce safe buildings designed to resist seismic activities. The remarkable properties of shape memory alloys, especially pseudoelastic effect, can be exploited in order to promote the essential energy dissipation necessary for earthquake-resistant structures. In this regard, shape memory alloy composite is an idea that can make this application feasible, using shape memory alloy fibers embedded in a matrix. This article investigates the use of shape memory alloy composites in a one-story frame structure subjected to earthquakes. Different kinds of composites are analyzed, comparing the influence of matrix type. Both linear elastic matrix and elastoplastic matrix with isotropic and kinematic hardening are investigated. Results indicate the great energy dissipation capability of shape memory alloy composites. A parametric analysis allows one to conclude that the maximum shape memory alloy volume fraction is not the optimum design condition for none of the cases studied, highlighting the necessity of a proper composite design. Despite the elastoplastic behavior of matrix also dissipates a considerable amount of energy, the associated residual strains are not desirable, showing the advantage of the use of shape memory alloys.