The Corn-Cotton Agroecosystem in the Mid-Southern United States: What Insecticidal Event Pyramids Should be Used in Each Crop to Extend Vip3A Durability. Academic Article uri icon


  • Recent studies suggest that resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) to Cry1A(b/c) and Cry2Ab2 toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) has increased and field efficacy is impacted in transgenic corn and cotton expressing these toxins. A third toxin, Vip3A, is available in pyramids expressing two or more Bt toxins in corn hybrids and cotton varieties, but uncertainty exists regarding deployment strategies. During a growing season, H. zea infests corn and cotton, and debate arises over use of Vip3A toxin in corn where H. zea is not an economic pest. We used a three-locus, spatially explicit simulation model to evaluate when using Vip3A in corn might hasten evolution of resistance to Vip3A, with implications in cotton where H. zea is a key pest. When using a conventional refuge in corn and initial resistance allele frequencies of Cry1A and Cry2A were 10%, transforming corn with Vip3A slowed resistance to these toxins and delayed resistance evolution to the three-toxin pyramid as a whole. When Cry resistance allele frequencies exceeded 30%, transforming corn with Vip3A hastened the evolution of resistance to the three-toxin pyramid in cotton. When using a seed blend refuge strategy, resistance was delayed longest when Vip3A was not incorporated into corn and used only in cotton. Simulations of conventional refuges were generally more durable than seed blends, even when 75% of the required refuge was not planted. Extended durability of conventional refuges compared to other models of resistance evolution are discussed as well as causes for unusual survivorship in seed blends.

published proceedings

  • J Econ Entomol

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Caprio, M. A., Kurtz, R., Catchot, A., Kerns, D., Reisig, D., Gore, J., & Reay-Jones, F.

citation count

  • 7

complete list of authors

  • Caprio, Michael A||Kurtz, Ryan||Catchot, Angus||Kerns, David||Reisig, Dominic||Gore, Jeff||Reay-Jones, Francis PF

publication date

  • August 2019