Inactivation of Murine Norovirus and Fecal Coliforms by Ferrate(VI) in Secondary Effluent Wastewater.
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Ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42, Fe(VI)) is an emerging oxidant/disinfectant to treat a wide range of contaminants and microbial pollutants in wastewater. This study describes the inactivation of murine norovirus (MNV) by Fe(VI) in phosphate buffer (PB) and secondary effluent wastewater (SEW). The decay of Fe(VI) had second-order kinetics in PB while Fe(VI) underwent an initial demand followed by first-order decay kinetics in SEW. The Chick-Watson inactivation kinetic model, based on integral CT (ICT) dose, well fitted the inactivation of MNV in both PB and SEW. In PB, the values of the inactivation rate constant (kd) decreased with an increase in pH, which was related to the reaction of protonated Fe(VI) species (HFeO4-) with MNV. Higher kd was observed in SEW than in PB. The inactivation of indigenous fecal coliforms (FC) in SEW was also measured. A two-population double-exponential model that accounted for both dispersed and particle-associated FC well fitted the inactivation data with determined kd and particle-associated inactivation rate constant (kp). Results show that Fe(VI) was more effective in inactivating dispersed FC than MNV. The MNV inactivation results obtained herein, coupled with the detailed modeling, provide important information in designing an Fe(VI) wastewater disinfection process.
author list (cited authors)
Manoli, K., Maffettone, R., Sharma, V. K., Santoro, D., Ray, A. K., Passalacqua, K. D., ... Sarathy, S.