Ferrate(VI) pre-treatment and subsequent chlorination of blue-green algae: Quantification of disinfection byproducts.
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Algal organic matter (AOM) from seasonal algal blooms may be an important precursor of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. This paper presents the effect of ferrate(VI) treatment on two blue-green algae, Chlorella sp. and Pseudanabaena limnetica, in eutrophic water. The results demonstrated that Fe(VI) removed the algal cells by causing cell death, apoptosis, and lost integrity, and decreased AOM (in terms of total organic carbon) in water via oxidation and coagulation. Chlorination of the Fe(VI) pre-oxidized algal water samples generated halogenated DBPs (including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloketones, chloral hydrate, haloacetonitriles, and trichloronitromethane), but the concentrations of DBPs were lower than those formed in the chlorinated samples without pre-treatment by Fe(VI). Higher Fe(VI) dose, longer oxidation time, and alkaline pH were beneficial in controlling DBPs. In bromide-containing algal solutions, negligible amount of bromo-DBPs were generated in the Fe(VI) pre-oxidation, and halogenated DBPs were mainly formed in the subsequent chlorination.